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N. N. Wig

Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Retìm kiếm, Chandigarh, IndiaAddress for correspondence: Dr. N. N. Wig, 279, Sector 6, Panchkula - 134 109, Haryamãng cầu, India. E-mail: ni.oc.oohayThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative sầu Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Emperor Ashoka is widely regarded as one of the greathử nghiệm rulers of India. This paper mainly đơn hàng with his medical condition as recorded in the Buddhist texts of Sri Lanka as well as in the Buddhist texts of North India and Nepal. These sources mention his skin disorder which is described as very rough and unpleasant khổng lồ touch. He is also known khổng lồ have episodes of loss of consciousness at various times in his life. One of the earliest representations of Ashoka, about 100 years after his death at one of the gates of Sanchi Stupa, shows Ashoka fainting when visiting the Bodhi tree & being held by his queens. In this sculpture, Emperor Ashoka is shown as a man of short height, large head and a paunchy abdomen. In this paper, it is speculated that Emperor Ashoka was probably suffering from von Recklinghausen disease (Neurofibromatosis Type 1), which could explain his skin condition, episodes of loss of consciousness (probably epilepsy) and other bodily deformities.

Keywords: Emperor Ashoka, fainting episodes, neurofibromatosis, skin disorder, von Recklinghausen disease

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this paper is lớn consider the skin disorder & other illnesses of Emperor Ashoka và khổng lồ suggest a possible medical diagnosis for his condition. Emperor Ashoka is generally regarded as one of the greatest rulers of India who ruled about some 2250 years ago. His empire covered most of the countries except perhaps the Southern tip of India and also extended lớn what is now Pakischảy & Afghanischảy. Surprisingly most of what we currently know in the history about this great emperor has been put together relatively recently, during the last 200 years or so after the arrival of East India Company. Governor General Warren Hastings và Sir William Jones, a senior judge in Calcutta"s Supreme Court started the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784. Sir William Jones was a great scholar, and he is generally recognized as the “Father of Indian Studies.” Asiatic Society of Bengal soon became the center where in regular meetings various new discoveries about Indian history, especially of the pre Muslyên period were presented and discussed. It also started a retìm kiếm journal, which recorded important findings of various historical sites, pillars, writings on Rocks, coins found in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, etc., Records of the Asiatic Society of Bengal are a rich source of ancient history of India. It is a fascinating story how step by step various people collected information about Mauryan dynasty kings, Chandragupta, Bindusara, Ashoka và their successors. This is very well described in John Keay"s Book “India Discovered" (1981) & even more comprehensively covered in the recent book “Ashoka – The Search for the India"s Lost Emperor” by Charles Allen. These researches have unfolded a glorious chapter in the early history of our country. One may also mention in passing that even the full life history of Mahatma Buddha was not clearly known at that time, and some early scholars even suggested that he could be an “African” conqueror.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Historically the information about Emperor Ashoka has been collected from various sources. Most important source is of course, various writings (Edicts) engraved on Rocks & some stone pillars found in different parts of India and Pakisrã at places as far as apart as Bihar, Odisha, Gujarat, Karnataka, North West Frontier Province in Pakisrã and even in Afghanisrã. Some of the best known Roông chồng Edicts are in Girnar (Junaragh District, Gujarat) và Ashoka pillars now at Ferozeshah Kotla Cricket Ground in Delhi (originally from Western U.Phường.) & in Allahabad (originally from Kausambhi). In these Edicts, Ashoka usually refers lớn himself as Devam – Piya (Beloved of the Gods) và King Piyadamê mệt (pleasant to lớn behold).

Apart from these Rock & Pillar Edicts, there are two other main written sources about Ashoka"s life, one from Sri Lanka và one from Nepal-both Buddhist texts. The Sri Lankan reference is from the book “Mahavansha” or the Great Dynastic Chronicle, (earlier called Deepavansha – or a chronicle of the Island). This book contains detailed reference of King Ashoka, how he sent his son Mahinda và daughter Sanghamitta lớn propagate Buddhism in Sri Lanka, how he completely changed after battle of Kalinga và turned khổng lồ Buddhism etc., The language of this book is Pali – variation of Prakrit, which was the spoken language in Magadh (Bihar) at that time.

The second source is the book Divyavadna, which is Mahayana or Northern Buddhist tradition. It is written in Sanskrit, – which was the language of elites. One of the 38 stories in this book is “Ashokavadana” or Legkết thúc of King Ashoka setout in nearly 10,000 verses.

Both these versions, Northern and Southern Buddhist accounts tell the story of King Ashoka with of course, significant differences as per religious traditions of North (Mahayana) & South (Theravada). Both groups of writings point out how Ashoka was a ruthless ruler before he turned Buddhist. He is known lớn have killed almost all his hundred or so step brothers who could have been possible claimants to lớn his throne. By his order, terrible tortures were inflicted on prisoners in his jail in Patliputra. Earlier in life he was often referred lớn as Chandomain authority Ashoka or Ashoka – the Ferocious.” However, after becoming Buddhist he became known as “Dharma Ashoka.”

Numerous historians have lavished exceptional praise about the later day Ashoka. His rule by “Dharma” or moral force and with “Ahimsa” or nonviolence as depicted in his Edicts is indeed a rare example in world history. As Wells in his famous book, “The Outline of History” has written “Aao ước the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history – the name of Ashoka shines and shines almost alone, a star. From the Volga lớn Japan his name is still honored.” To Ashoka must also go the credit of one of the earliest idea of a “Welfare State” in history when in his Edicts he says that he considers all his subjects as his children và their welfare is his responsibility.

MEDICAL HISTORY OF KING ASHOKA

As stated in the beginning, the main purpose of this article is to consider various medical illnesses of King Ashoka as described in historical records and which, lớn best of our knowledge have not been medically analyzed or written about before. The bulk of the medical information about Ashoka as mentioned in this article has been obtained from recently published book “Ashoka – the tìm kiếm for India"s Lost Emperor” by Charles Allen (2013).

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The second very clear medical condition, which is described, are the episodes of fainting or unconsciousness at various time in his life. There are several such episodes described in Sri Lanka"s Great Dynastic Chronicle. For example, when on pilgrimage to lớn various Buddhist places, at Kushinagra, Ashoka is so much overcome with emotions that he fainted and had to lớn be revived by attendants. Similar episode happened when he visited the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, where, he again fainted. This scene is depicted in one of the gates of Sanchi Stupa where Ashoka is shown fainting and being held by his queens (Photograph in Charles Allen"s book page 344).

The third reference to lớn his health condition is toward the over of his life when Ashoka is seriously ill và “an impure substance was oozing from his pores.” The queen Tishyarakshita ordered a tìm kiếm to find a man with similar illness. A large worm was found in the belly of that man. After trying various remedies, the queen succeeded in killing the worm by onion juice. The onion was generally considered as unclean vegetable in religious belief, but the queen gave onion treatment to king Ashoka & he was cured by that. It is also worth noting how the images of Ashoka have sầu undergone changes in Indian sculpture. As Charlies Allen points out in his book, the sculpture at gates of Sanđưa ra Stupage authority are probably some of the earliest images, made His ugliness và frailties are all forgotten now.

MEDICAL INTERPRETATION OF ASHOKA"S ILLNESS

Hence, we have sầu the following available information about king Ashoka"s health:

He had a gross skin condition in which his skin was lượt thích crude dust or dirt. It was unpleasant lớn look at and unpleasant to lớn touch

He had many episodes of loss of consciousness

His father Bindusara is also known to lớn have sầu “spots” on his skin as indicated by his name.

FINAL MEDICAL ASSESSMENT

It is of course, very risky khổng lồ make a modern diagnosis of medical conditions of sometoàn thân who live sầu more than 2000 years ago. All we have is the descriptions given in some Buddhist texts related lớn Ashoka"s life.

In our opinion, putting all the facts together, it seems likely that King Ashoka suffered from what we now Call, Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (von Recklinghausen"s disease) The well-known Harrison"s Principles of Internal Medicine describes von Recklinghausen"s disease as “characterized by cutaneous (skin) neurofibromas và pigmented lesions of skin called “Café-au lait spots.” Neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve sầu tumors. They are present as multiple, palpable, rubbery, tumors in the skin. They are generally asymptomatic but at time many have sầu in addition hydrocephalus (large head), scoliosis, short stature, hypertension, epilepsy và mental retardation.

The description seems to lớn fit in well with King Ashoka"s skin condition and the fainting fits may have sầu been due lớn epilepsy. One can also speculate about his short height probably due lớn scoliosis and his large head could be a sign of hydrocephalus. He certainly did not have mental retardation; on the other hvà, he was exceptionally intelligent.

We are conscious of the speculative sầu nature of our medical interpretation, but his skin condition, và fainting episodes strongly point lớn this possibility. His short stature and large face further tư vấn this hypothesis. The name of Ashoka"s father – Bindusara (spotted one) also suggests the possibility of a hereditary character of the skin disorder, which is known in von Recklinghausen disease.

We are grateful khổng lồ Professor B. K. Sharma, former Professor of Medicine and Director, Postgraduate Institute, Chandigarh for his help & encouragement in writing of this paper.

Footnotes

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None declared

REFERENCES

1. John K. England: Windward An imprint of W.H. Smith và Sons; 1981. India Discovered. 2. Allen C. London: Abacus, An imprint of Little, Brown Book Group; 2013. Ashoka – The tìm kiếm for India"s Lost Emperor. 3. Wells HG. London: Cassel and Company Ltd; 1930. The Outline of History. Popular Edition; p. 402. 4. Sagar SM, Israel MA. Neurofibromatosis type I, (von Recklinghausen diseases) In: Anthony S, Fauci, Eugene Braunwald, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, Dan L. Longo, Larry J. Jameson, et al., editors. Harrison"s Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. McGraw Hill, Medical, New York: 2008. p. 2607. Articles from Indian Journal of Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications